A National Cigar Museum EXCLUSIVE  
(c) Tony Hyman
These are dates and events which I deemed relevant to the history of cigars. This timeline is always under construction. I add dates as I find them. Since the information was gathered over a period of 50 years from more than 1,000 sources, errors, contradictions or differences of opinion are inevitable. Feel free to write <tony@CigarHistory.info>.
Readers are encouraged to submit entries obtained from any source published before 1960. I am especially interested in company openings & closings, cigar-related disasters, market changes, statistics, laws relevant to cigars, labor activity, and riots that you can authentically date from early sources, letterheads, newspaper stories, etc. Technology involving small or large growers, makers, wholesalers and retailers is also of interest. When possible, please include a low res jpg photograph or scan of your source material. Please paste, NOT attach, to your email.
This TimeLine covers events from just before European intervention in the Western Hemisphere and the Civil Wars in the United States and Cuba in the 1860’s.
1460  People native to North, Central and South America use tobacco, and have for centuries. Two strains of tobacco, rustica and tabacum are grown from Chile to Canada, the former primarily in North America, the latter in the Caribbean and South America below Mexico. Virtually every Amerindian society use tobacco, even among groups that practiced no other agriculture. It was absent only in Northeastern South America where in Inka times, coca prevailed as the drug of choice.
1493  Europe gets introduced to tobacco by Columbus and crew.
1516  Gonzalo Hernandez de Oviedo becomes Viceroy of San Domingo. Writes a history of the region upon his return to Spain in 1526, describing the almost universal practice of cigar smoking.
1535  Cubans are shipping Spain the best grades of tobacco available at that time. Hundreds of farms (vegas) are reported as in production but most are 33 acres or less. Typically, half of the farm is devoted to food crops, half to tobacco.
1550±  Sailors of all nations are reported smoking.
1560±  Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, spreads tobacco to France.
1564±  Sir J. Hawkins returns to England with North American Indian (rustica) tobacco.
1575  The Portuguese break the Spanish monopoly on tobacco farming, followed not long after by the Dutch. Only the British were left out of the tobacco growing business.
1580  Tobacco planting begins in the Vuelta Abajo of western Cuba.
1588  Hariot, writing in England about the Raliegh sponsored voyage to Virginia in 1584, mentions the availability of Indian tobacco growing wild “sowed by itselfe.” Hariot says the Spanish call the plant tobacco, tho he uses the North American Amerind name, uppowoc.
1598  German traveler reports clay pipe smoking as almost universal in England.
1600  England addicted to tobacco, its residents spending more than £200,000 in scarce silver coin annually, mostly to Dutch and Spanish smugglers.
1606  Spanish King decrees tobacco may be grown only in specific colonies, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo and Venezuela. Direct sale of tobacco to foreigners is punishable by death.
1604  England’s King James ordered the uprooting of all the tobacco-plants as it was ”of the two, more tolerable that the same should be imported, than be permitted to be planted here within the realm, thereby to abuse and misemploy the soil of this fruitful kingdom.” Simultaneously, without Parliamentary approval, he raised import taxes from 4¢ to 60¢ a pound. Duties went up and down, often yearly, for the next two centuries.
1607  Jamestown colony founded to grow tobacco so Britain would not be dependent on their Spanish enemies or Dutch and Portuguese smugglers.
1609  Hudson and Champlain discover NY state Iroquois growing tobacco in the Chemung Valley.
1610  William Strachey, the first secretary of Jamestown, describes two types of wild tobacco, varying in height from roughly two to eight feet. Planting of West Indian seed began.
1610  Playwright Ben Jonson describes adulteration of tobacco with various substances by tobacconists: “sack-lees or oil, nor washes it in muscadel and grains, nor buries it in gravel, underground, wrapped up in greasy leather, or pissed clouts; but keeps it in fine lily-pots that, opened, smell like conserve of roses, or French beans.”
1611  Jamestown ships 142,000 pounds of tobacco, according to one questionable source. Seems high for a scraggly new colony gathering wild weeds. Probably incorrect date and/or poundage.
1614  King of Spain orders all tobacco to pass through Seville before being resold to foreigners.
1614  English writer Barnaby Rich describes Londoners as being able to buy tobacco in 7,000 shops “in every land and in every corner about London.” Londoners spend £320,000 a year on tobacco. £120,000 of which still ends up in the hands of the Spanish. The Portuguese and Dutch also cash in on England’s addiction. The English need more colonies in the new world so they too can grow tobacco for the mother country.
1614  The first cigar store figure reported in London. These symbols became necessary to inform a largely illiterate population that tobacco was available for purchase at their tavern, wine and ale house, apothecary, grocery, chandlery or tobacconist shop.
1616  Tobacco officially becomes a cultivated “white man’s crop” in Virginia.
1617  John Rolphe led experiments in curing, favoring the dry hanging method over compost pile style heaps.
1620  A Dutch man-of-war brings the first 20 African slaves to Virginia.
1620  One report claims that only about one-tenth of Virginia tobacco was sent to England because of high taxes, the majority arriving in Amsterdam where profits were higher.
1621  One widow and eleven maids shipped from London to Jamestown as wives; auctioned under the trees, they brought an average of 120 pounds of tobacco each, the debt to take precedence over all others. This story is also told with earlier dates and larger numbers as high as “90 agreeable maidens, young and incorrupt” bringing 150 pounds. It’s claimed that some of the “first families” of Virginia are descendants.
1622  Jamestown colony ships 60,000 pounds of tobacco to England. Quality varied greatly to the distress of commercial sponsors, who claim 40,000 pounds of it brought very low prices. English merchants refuse to send any more commodities in exchange unless quality improves. “We heartily wish that you would make some provision for the burning of all base and rotten stuff and not suffer any but very good to be cured [and sent home]...”
1622  Spanish tobacco sold on world markets for roughly 8 times as much as Virginia.
1624  The Virginia Company was dissolved and taken over by King Charles I. Business matters remained in the hands of London businessmen who sent representatives to the colony and burned poor tobacco. Antagonisms between growers and merchants would last in Virginia for 200 years.
1631  Tobacco cultivation begins in Maryland.
1631  In quality control move, Virginia  passes a law dictating how many leaves may be picked from a plant.
1640  Tobacco grown in Windsor, CT.  Local law passed reading that after September 1641 “...no persons within this jurisdiction shall [smoke] any other tobacco but such as is or shall be planted within these districts, except they have license from the court.”
1646  New Englanders continue enacting laws: “No person under the age of twenty...shall take any tobacco until he hath brought a certificate under the hands of a physician that it is useful for him  and also that he hath received a license from the court for the same.”
1647  Another low provided that no person should use the weed publicly or in the “fyelds or woods” unless he were traveling at least ten miles, nor could he smoke in his own home with more than one other person at the same time.  Tobacco was thought to lead to idleness.
1650’s  Puritans in Massachusetts banned smoking and the purchase of tobacco, but added that it was alright for wholesalers to buy the local crop and ship it elsewhere to corrupt someone else.
1650  Parliament reintroduces import duties on New England tobacco.
1655  New Haven colony passed an  anti-smoking penalty of 84 pence per pipeful, the fine to be given to the person who rats on the smoker, making squealer a profitable new occupation.
1669  Plymouth Colony, puritanical regarding smoking, set a 12 pence fine for smoking within two miles of a church (meeting house) on Sunday.
1670  Spanish King establishes cigar and snuff factory in Seville.
1660  Tobacco production in Virginia varies from 500 pounds per acre to 1660 per acre depending on the quality of the soil and its preparation.
1670  The tobacco business in Austria becomes a government monopoly under the control of the  “Inspector of Woods and Forests.” Over the next century, tobacco became a million dollar a year business.
1674  French King Louis XIV decrees the privilege for producing and selling tobacco was no longer granted to individuals but was exclusive to the Compagnie des Indes. Tobacco growing became a government monopoly.
1681  Lord Culpepper, writing about Virginia production, says “The market is overstocked, and every crop overstocks it more. Our thriving is our undoing and our buying of blacks hath extremely contributed thereto by making more tobacco.”
1686  A French writer visiting the colonies noted that, laws aside, ‘everyone smoked’ including children.
1690  Tobacco expensive but in vogue among London dandies, so tobacconists were popular. The English were pipe smokers. Snuff was second choice.
1699  Lionel Wafer describes Amerind cigars: The natives “laying two or three leaves upon one another, they roll up all together sideways into a long roll, yet leaving a little hollow. Round this they roll other leaves one after another, in the same manner, but close and hard, till the roll is as big as one’s wrist, and two or three feet in length.”
1700  Connecticut leaf was selling for two or three times the price of Virginia tobacco. New England tobacco was hearty stuff, not for the faint of heart or throat. As a result it was heavily flavored.
1704  New England (CT) tobacco being shipped to the West Indies.  Jamaica?
1705  “If any person or persons whatsoever shall pay away, or put to sale, or offer to pay away or put  to sale, any hogshead of tobacco which he hath deceitfully or hath caused or suffered to be deceitfully packed, by putting thereunto any stones, or intermingling therewith any dirt, sand, tobacco-stocks, stems, ground leaves, or other trash whatsoever, shall forefeit, for every hogshead so deceitfully packed, 1000 pounds of tobacco.”
1710  Active international trade in the early 1700’s made cigars and other tobacco available to all social classes, as did epic amounts of smuggling.
1717  Spanish King again rules that Cuban tobacco can be sold only to Spain. The edict creates a job opportunity for smugglers for the next 181 years.
1719  Growing tobacco was prohibited throughout France; capital punishment could be imposed.
1723  Spanish King retracts rule about selling cigars and tobacco only to Spain after six years of farmer revolt.
1728  International demand led the Spanish King to begin construction of a huge new cigar factory in Seville, a world class project that would take three decades to complete.
1730  By law, all tobacco was required to be inspected prior to export to prevent the sending of trash, badly seasoned, and unmarketable leaf “inasmuch as it deceived His Majesty of his customs.” Inspectors were soon accused of passing bad tobacco of their friends and “spitefully burning” tobacco of others.
1732  In Maryland, tobacco was legal tender for all salaries and debts, including those owed the government, at the rate of 1¢ per pound.
1734  W. Thornhill & Co., purveyors of smoker’s accessories established in London.
1735  Cigar smoking glowingly described in journals of traveler John Cockburn published in England (thanks to a chance encounter with three Franciscan monks who shared their cigars with him).
1739  One farm in Windsor, CT, shipped “221 weight” of tobacco to Barbados.
1744-1767  Numerous records exist of shipments of strong New England tobacco to Boston and to the West Indies.
1751 English law aimed to stop smuggling also contains provisions prohibiting adulteration of tobacco.
1752  French government offers the equivalent of a whopping 70¢ per pound for all tobacco grown by Louisiana settlers. Indigo was the major crop but insects destroyed it, elevating importance of tobacco.
1753  Connecticut established the position of tobacco inspector to make certain goods to be exported were in good condition.
1754  Virginia exported 50,000 hogsheads of pipe and snuff tobacco. A hogshead weighed between 800 and 1,000 pounds. Virginia (Southern) tobacco was unsuitable for cigars so used reluctantly.
1755  Virginia passes the Option Act making it possible to pay the clergy in money instead of tobacco.
1757  New Seville cigar factory finally finished, the largest industrial complex in the world, a “walled city” with more than 4,000 daytime inhabitants with its own chapel, rules and prison. Its workforce rolled 100,000 cigars a day.  Similar factories would later be established by the Spanish Crown in Mexico and the Philippines.
1760  Pierre Lorillard opens snuff mill in New York City. Soon expands to other tobacco products.
1761 Spanish King reenacts ban on selling Cuban tobacco or cigars to foreign powers.  After the brief British take-over of Havana in 1762, the ban continued.
1762  England captures Havana for nine months, during which more international shipping went through Cuba than in two and a half centuries of Spanish control. The entire world got introduced to Cuban tobacco, exotic hardwoods, and fruits. Spain got Cuba back by treaty but learned that once a pleasure is known to the world, it is very difficult to hide or control.
1763  British Lt. Col. Israel Putnam returned to CT from occupation of Havana with cigar tobacco seed and more than 30,000+ cigars.  How much seed? No one knows, but tobacco is one of the world’s  tiniest seeds. Enough to plant 500 acres will fit inside a standard lipstick tube (about 300,000 seeds to the ounce).
1770  Quality of New England tobacco steadily improves.
1770  Demuth opens tobacconist shop at 114 East King St., Lancaster, PA.
1770  Cigar smoking begins to catch on in New England and major North American port cities. Cigars were cheap and almost entirely home made, made by farm wives and peddled by their husbands or traded to Yankee wagon peddlers.
1770  A. Hillen Sigarenfabriek established (the Red Anchor Cigar Factory) in Delft, Holland according to its label, alternately listed as 1772 on other of the company’s cigar labels.
1773  Pipe smoking falling out of fashion among the gentry.
1774  Town of Pinar del Rio founded in Western Cuba, becoming the Provincial capitol of the Vuelta Abajo region, already known for quality leaf. Travel is very difficult in Cuba. Roads are horrendous and remain that way until U.S. economic control of the island in the 1900’s. Tobacco is transported 40 or more miles by oxcart over muddy rutted roads.
1775  Virginia shipped 400± million pounds to tobacco in the early 1770’s, 150 million of which went to England, the remainder to the rest of Europe. At the start of the Revolution “Virginia” consisted of present day WV, KY, OH, IN, IL, MI, WI and MN. Each of those future states grew tobacco.
1776  US colonies declare independence from England. Tobacco growers were in perpetual debt to British merchants. Taxes were heavy. Tobacco helped finance the Revolution by serving as collateral for French loans.
I’d like to quit and go back home.
1779  Jonathan Carver, Esq., recommended the British should plant New England tobacco in England because of its hardiness and strong taste, which the English preferred.
1781  Spanish King begins a 100 year long monopoly of tobacco growing and cigar manufacture in the Philippines (lifted in 1882). Philippine cigars, usually called Manillas, are more popular than US cigars in Europe and Asia. Few U.S. cigars are ever exported.
1783  Treaty of Paris officially ends the Revolutionary War.
1783  Cigars are being imported into the U.S. from the West Indies (Cuba and Jamaica) into Boston. (earliest confirmed mention of commercial importing of cigars from the Caribbean I have found so far)
1783  Parliament studies tobacco and smuggling and comes to conclusion that their laws were ineffectual. Smugglers could afford to lose 60% of their shipments and still make substantial profit. Remind you of something today? New enforcement laws resulted in collecting taxes on an additional 1,000,000 pounds of tobacco in 1784. After only two years of enforcement, the English treasury showed a surplus of one million pounds sterling thanks to tobacco taxes. Hmmm?
1784  Austrian government takes over management of the tobacco monopoly which previously they had rented out. The government administered cigar and tobacco factories in Hainburg (Austria), Ferstenfeld (Styria), Milan and Venice (Italy), Trent and Schwarz (Tyrol), Sedlitz (Bohemia), Goeding (Moravia) and Winiki (Galicia). Approximately 7,000 workers supplied 1,000 wholesalers and 30,000 retail dealers.
1786  Explorer Sebastian Cobb reports Kayuga Indians growing 60 acres of tobacco near present day Elmira, NY. Wrote to his sister in NH that he was considering becoming a tobacco planter too.
1788  First cigar factory in Germany established in Hamburg. The city becomes one of Europe’s cigar making centers.
1789  Spanish government published manual on proper growing and handling of tobacco, including instructions regarding cigar manufacture (according to Mara, but Mara’s mention of binder leaf is of questionable accuracy as are a number of his assertions regarding bands and boxes).
1789  US Government raises protective tariffs to protect the infant US cigar industry. Imported cigars paid a tax of 6¢ a pound, which works out  to roughly 30¢ to 50¢ per 1,000 segars.
1789  Consumer size boxes of 100 cigars are offered for sale in a NYC newspaper, May 1789. (earliest confirmed mention of a box of 100 I have found so far)
1789  P. Lorillard begins running an illustrated newspaper display ad offering common cigars in the August NY Advertiser. The ad can be seen in the Lorillard and Tin exhibit.
1791  President Mirabeau of France and the National Assembly retracted the ban on growing and selling tobacco.
1791  Alexander Hamilton’s report to congress on the state of manufacturing in the US includes tobacco manufacture as one of the nation‘s basic industries
1792  Leaf tobacco was exported from NH, MA, RI, CT, NY, NJ, PA, DE, MD, VA, NC, SC, and GA. The leading export states, accounting for roughly 3/4 of the total, were Virginia and Maryland.  Manufactured tobacco (snuff, pipe tobacco, chaw and cigars) were shipped from MA, NY, PA, MD, VA, SC and GA with Massachusetts accounting for 92% of the total.
1794  James Madison argues against a tobacco tax because it falls heaviest on the poor, the day laborers and common seamen. Madison calls tobacco an “innocent gratification.”
1794  John Hancart announces (via an ad in the Philadelphia AMERICAN DAILY ADVERTISER) the opening of his cigar and tobacco factory making common cigars as well as snuff, pipe  tobacco and chewing tobacco in Germantown, PA, outside Philadelphia. “Orders from any part of the continent” are solicited. Ad is on Museum display.
1795  Ireland imports 2.5 pounds of tobacco per person.
1796  US Government taxes locally made snuff at the rate of 60% of the selling price. The snuff tax was snuffed after two years because the cost of collecting it was more than the revenue raised.
1796  The New York Weekly Magazine for Wednesday, August 24, 1796 noted:  “There is nothing, perhaps, more pernicious, or more destructive to the health of man, than the present practice of segar-smoaking. It is of all others the most disagreeable, as well as the most obnoxious thing in use...”
1796  Most cigars smoked in U.S. come from Europe. Most cigars advertised in U.S. are from “Havana.”
1798  Boston passes law against segar smoking on public streets. Both cigar and pipe smokers are restricted to Boston Commons. The law wasn’t repealed until 1880.
1800±   Don Francisco Cabañas (various dates from 1797 - 1810) approved by Spanish Crown to export Cuban cigars. When his daughter took over upon his death, the brand was renamed HIJA DE CABANAS Y CARBAJAL, then around  the 1860’s shortened to H. DE CABANAS Y CARBAJAL.
1800  Paper in which quantities of loose tobacco were wrapped at the tobacconist’s often contained printed poems, riddles or “grotesque heads, chiefly African.”  Designs were probably shop idiosyncratic. Who made the first one, and where?  ¿Quien sabe?   (Who knows? Said with the proper Latin shoulder shrug it also means “Who cares?”)
1801  Connecticut cigar tobacco production reaches 20,000 pounds.
1804  At the time of the Louisiana purchase, tobacco production had spread up the Mississippi to Natchez, and  New Orleans was shipping 2,000 hogsheads a year, mostly to France, but also to Cuba.
1804  Cuba importing tobacco from US to keep up with European demand for cigars.
1804  Customs records from 1804 show the U.S. imported 4,000,000 cigars a year from Cuba, Hamburg, Amsterdam, and Florida.
1804  Protective tariffs designed to help the fledgling U.S. cigar industry were raised to $2 per box (of 1,000) for cigars imported from Europe or the Caribbean.
1806  Ad on front page of Charleston (South Carolina) Courier seeks 3 cigar makers.
1810  Bernardino Rencurrel founds export cigar factory in Cuba.
1810  Roswell Viets started a cigar factory in East Windsor, CT, and his brother Simeon [alt: Samuel] Viets started one in West Suffield, CT. Simeon/Samuel set up cigar factory, by hiring Cuban to teach [12?] local women to roll cigars. First employees reported as Clarissa King and Sally Ingraham. Cigars rolled from a mix of local tobacco and cheapest grade of Cuban. Widely, incorrectly, touted as first U.S. cigar factory.
1810  The 1810 census recorded 29,000,000 domestic cigars as having been made, mostly in Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, and Cincinnati. Small makers throughout NY, PA, and New England were not counted.
1810  Frishmuth Bro. & Co. established in Philadelphia. Makers of sweet scented smoking tobacco.
1811  Ads for consumer-size boxes of 100 cigars appear in newspapers in Boston.
1811  English tobacconists offer cigars banded with hand written epigrams, much like Chinese fortune cookies, wrapped around them.
1812  Common cigars sold for between $1 and $2 per thousand wholesale, and retailers did their own boxing, banding and branding. Better quality cigars, known as half-Spanish brought $4 per 1,000 and sold retail for a penny.
1813  A Colonel in the British Grenadier Guards dismisses a complaint about short rations during the 1812 war against France and the United States, saying his soldiers thrived on a diet of “brandy and cigars.” graphic illustration
1814  To keep tobacco from drying out, it was frequently wrapped in skins dampened with various substances, including stale urine according to a contemporary writer.
1814  English writer (in 1839) says of 1814 that good cigars were unobtainable except from ship captains arriving from the West Indies.
1815-18  Spain relaxes rules prohibiting Cuban trade with rest of world. Cuban cigar and tobacco production begins to flourish even tho a large export tax levy accompanied permission to sell elsewhere.
1815  The importation of Spanish cigars into England finally officially permitted, after the Peace of 1815. Import taxes were high.
1816  Parliamentary House of Commons committee decides to continue ban on growing tobacco in England.
1819  Sir Walter Scott, a heavy smoker, decides to limit himself to one cigar a day;
1820  An English “gentleman” was expected to keep on hand a selection of cigars and pipe tobaccos to offer visitors.
1820  Article in London magazine claims most Cuban cigars sold in England were frauds, made locally. Every indication is that was the case.
1821  Parliament decides to emphasize legal provisions in place against adulteration as tobacconists were abusing provisions allowing small amounts of coloring and flavoring.
1820’s  Cigar and pipe tobacco grown in KY and TN was exported to world markets through New Orleans.
1820’s  Wooden carved highlanders in uniform begin replacing black boys as the “cigar store Indian” of choice in England and Scotland. Cigar store figures were manufactured doll size to larger than life-size.
1821 First commercial lithography establishment in NYC.
1821  Austrians smoke 1 1/4 pounds of domestically manufactured tobacco per person in pipes and cigars. Tobacco is almost all from Transylvania and Hungary. Consumption does not include tobacco smuggled in, an estimated half pound per person.
1823  Despite their popularity, only 26 pounds of cigars were reported as legally imported into England. Key word is legally, as taxes were high, smuggling was rewarding.
1823  Lord Byron becomes the unofficial poet laureate of the cigar thanks to The Island and the lines “Yet thy true lovers more admire by far Thy naked beauties--Give me a cigar!”
1824  Louisiana Acadians develop a new type of pipe and cigarette tobacco called Perique, created by lengthy curing under pressure in its own juices. Very strong, it was unsuitable for cigars, and blended in small quantities for other uses. Always in very limited supply, it was expensive, selling for $1 a pound.
1825  Cigar tobacco warehouses established in CT.  It is reported that Connecticut cigars were called Windsor Particulars, Long Nines, Supers and Sixes. Possibly true, but I have found no original material to support this probably single source claim.
1825  Lewis Bremer’s Sons, importers and packers of Havana tobacco opened in Philadelphia.
1825  John Pendelton imports French lithograph machinery and an experienced operator into Boston, sets up shop.
1826  Ohio begins exporting a Maryland type tobacco called “Eastern Ohio Export” tobacco. Rich soils of Ohio and “Western U.S.” are particularly well suited to the soil-depleting tobacco crop, producing heavy leaves popular in the European market.
1826 to 1830  Cuba averages 245,097 boxes of cigars exported annually. Boxes contain 1,000 cigars.
1826  In Europe cigars are divided into five types: Havanas, Imitation Havanas, First Quality, Second quality and Third Quality. After taxes, Imitation Havanas cost equivalent of  $3.50 per box of 100 at retailers. Lowest quality retailed for a penny or less.
1826    England: Morris & Sons, cigarmakers, open in London. “Three or four small factories were in existence at the time.”
1827  Spanish taxes on Cuban cigar and tobacco exports lifted, encouraging those industries.
1827  Luis Caire set up Cuba’s first Lithographic company:  Imprenta Litografica Habanera. It is claimed that Cuban lithographers began printing labels in color two years before those in the U.S.
1827  Jaime Partagas Ravelo’s first Havana cigar factory is founded.
1827  Full color satirical print depicting Cuban factory flavoring cigars with vomit, sold in London. (earliest illustration of a cigar factory I have seen so far; exhibited in the NCM)
1827  Friction match invented, making smoking more mobile.
1828  Though planted earlier, it isn’t until now that PA cigar tobacco reaches commercial importance.
1828  Tobacco planting introduced into Florida.
1829  Cutting British import taxes in half put cigars in the reach of a great many more English smokers. Importation of cigars multiplies eight-fold.
1829  Spanish factory in Seville begins hiring gypsy women, often young teens, as cigar rollers.
1829  The Austrian tobacco monopoly brought in $3,300,000 into the treasury. In the next seven years that figure doubled to $7,525,000, reflecting the sharp rise in demand. Everyone smokes or snuffs. Meerschaum pipes are preferred and become a matter of great pride. Shops offer a wide range of cigars.
1829  Combination Cigar Co. founded in New Ipswich, NH (still around in 1889): business card
1829  Committee of the House of Commons acknowledges that 3/4th of the tobacco consumed in England is smuggled in, and that laws and government agents cannot suppress smuggling as long as taxes twelve times the value of the tobacco are being charged.
I’d like to quit and go back home.
1830  254,000 pounds of cigars legally imported into England, up 10,000x in just a few years thanks to sharp reduction in import taxes. That’s roughly 30,000,000 cigars.
1830  Commercial lithography introduced into Baltimore by former sign painter George Endicott.
1830  Jose Garcia's MI FAMA POR EL ORBE VUELTA brand created.
1830  Pottsville, PA, advertises in Boston newspaper, asking for a cigar maker to take up residence.
1831   Seven year old Adam Valentine begins working as a stripper in Abraham Harner’s cigar factory in Rehrersburg, PA. Two years later, age nine, he became a roller. At age 16 he moved to Womelsdorf, PA, married at 20, and started his own factory at 24.
1831  “Several” cigar factories were in operation in Suffield, CT, and factories had been established here and there throughout the tobacco regions of Connecticut.  Cigars made in New England trade at $1.00 to $1.50 per 1,000 to peddlers. They are generally a mix of domestic local tobacco and low grade Cuban.
1831 to 1835  Cuba averages 99,763 boxes of cigars exported annually. Boxes contain 1,000 cigars.
1830’s  Cigars are very fashionable in Europe and US cities. Pipe smokers carry tobacco pouches when out of the house.  Coffee houses are popular smoking centers.
1832  Porfirio Larrañaga starts factory according to box.
1834  Ignacio Larrañaga starts factory according to Mara’s book
1833 to 1840  During this period 638,857 boxes containing 1,000 foreign cigars each are imported into the United States. Total value only $7,000,000, about a penny apiece. That’s more expensive than it sounds as most Americans earned less than $2 a week in cash.
1833  Time zones standardized due to needs of growing railroad industry. Andrew Jackson becomes the first sitting President to ride a railroad, tho John Quincy Adams (out of office) rode sooner.
1833  “It is past all doubt that three-quarters of the tobacco consumed in Ireland, if not more than one-half of all that is consumed in Great Britain, is smuggled into the country to avoid the high duties (taxes). Nearly all the cigars (so perfectly convenient for the contraband trade, and on which there is a nine shilling duty per pound) are smuggled ashore.” The official tables of Cuba and England show that, in one year while Cuba exported nearly 10,000,000 pounds of cigars to England, only 141,000 pounds paid the English duty.
1833  CT Broadleaf, first great US cigar tobacco, developed about this time from MD seed (which originally came from Havana). 90 years of crop expansion and use follow.
1833  A carelessly discarded cigar butt in the planing mill led to a fire which destroyed 72 of the 74 buildings in Cumberland, PA.
1833±  The value of ‘sweating’ cigar tobacco discovered accidentally. Think of it as similar to creating a tightly packed compost pile. Growers and warehousemen quickly begin sweating all cigar tobacco which improved it greatly, beginning the era of fine tobacco from CT.  
1834±  About this time, US tobacco farmers began selling their crops to leaf warehouses rather than making the cigars themselves. Local warehouses grew in importance selling to larger warehouses in cities, or directly to traveling buyers representing factories. Large commercial warehouses began springing up in New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore.
1834  Asian Journal magazine reports the Spanish King’s Royal cigar factory outside of Manilla employs 4,000 women in the manufacture of cigars and 1,000 men in the manufacture of cigarettes. Though highly prized  worldwide (selling in Europe and Asia for higher prices than Cuban cigars), most of the factory’s output is smoked in the Philippines.
1834  NY Sun reports the Spanish King’s Royal cigar factory located a mile west of Mexico City is six acres in size and employs between 3,000 and 6,000 people, “the greater portion of whom reside within the walls.”  The government's wholesale outlet in Mexico City is supplied by “300 mules constantly conveying the cigars packed in bundles of 1,000 or in large boxes holding 50,000.”
1834  William F. Comly & Son, cigar auctioneers, opens at 27 S. 2nd St., Philadelphia. In 1910, they advertise they sold 14,000,000 cigars between 1905-1910.
1834  England imports 38,000,000 pounds of tobacco from the U.S. and 700,000 pounds from the rest of the world.  666 people are employed in England, Ireland and Scotland in tobacco manufacture. England exported 13,000,000 pounds of manufactured tobacco products.
1835  England’s cost of collecting 630,000 pounds sterling in tobacco taxes was 800,000 pounds sterling.
1835  To meet worldwide demand for Cuban tobacco 35,000 tobacco farms (vegas) are under cultivation in Cuba. Farms are usually 33 acres or less, half of which is devoted to food crops. Plantings of high quality leaf in Western Cuba (Pinar del Rio/Vuelta Abajo) greatly expanded during 1830’s.
1835  Ed Weber begins litho business in Baltimore. In 1853 his company becomes A. Hoen & Co., the largest printer of smoking and chewing tobacco labels in the western hemisphere.
1835 to 1840  Cuban cigar exports way up, averaging 790,286 boxes of 1,000 cigars a year during this period. In part this reflects higher quality and availability thanks to increased production in Vuelta Abajo.
1836  The Spanish King’s Royal cigar factory in Seville employs 1,000 male rollers and 1,600 females who make approximately 650,000 cigars a day. The smaller Royal factory in Malaga makes 140,000 a day. They are paid piece rates and a top roller makes about 15 English cents a day, about what two or three cigars will sell for in London. “Home made Havannahs” (English made) sell for 3¢ or less.
1836  An Austrian private citizen who wants to import Spanish or Cuban cigars rather than buy from the Austrian state monopoly must obtain a permit and pay a fee. So many applications were made that the government discontinued the practice and began importing better grade cigars than those made locally. Wholesalers to whom the government sells are permitted to make 1.5% profit and retailers from 2% to 10% depending on the product, quality and demand. Wounded war veterans are given preference when the government sells retailer’s licenses.
1836  John Wood & Son established cigarette factory in London at 23-25 Queen Victoria St.
1836  The port of New York handled almost 2,500,000 pounds of Ohio tobacco.
1837  Ramon and Antonio Allones arrive in Cuba. Nee reports their cigar brand starting in 1845.
1837  One-quarter of all the tobacco consumed in England and Scotland is smuggled in to avoid duties or because it comes from politically incorrect ports. Import tax was paid on 140,000 pounds of cigars imported from Europe and Cuba.  That translates to about 17,000,000 cigars.
1837  England: Though cigar smoking was rising steadily, some critics considered smoking a cigar while walking down the street to be “fast” behavior in England.
1837  English writer says “ No people in the world smoke worse tobacco, or pay so dear for it, as the people of this country. The very worst kinds of leaf, which nowhere else could find a market, meet with a ready sale among the English...”
1838  Florida’s “Old Speckled Leaf” tobacco was an important cigar wrapper leaf, renown for its “broad, silky, beautifully spotted leaf.” Production abandoned after the Civil War, Cuban and Sumatran tobaccos becoming more important as wrappers. Cuban and Sumatran tobacco become the basis of Florida’s cigar industry.
1838  The first high quality cigar tobacco planted in southwestern OH. Tobacco was more profitable than wheat or corn and production spread quickly.
1838  RIFLE brand Cuban cigars offered for sale in Boston newspaper ad, the earliest mention of Cuban cigars by brand name that I have yet found in an ad. See label in Cuba exhibit
1839  Cuban government raises export tax on cigars to 50¢ per box (1,000) cigars.
1839  US imports tobacco from Cuba and Amsterdam primarily, some middle east, other quantities nominal. England imports cigar and smoking tobacco from all over the world including Virginia, Maryland, Colombia, Guatemala, India, Syria, etc. Cigar sellers are plentiful in England and US.
1839  From A Paper of Tobacco (1839): “The quantity of cigars legally imported into England bears no proportion to the quantity consumed. Most of the cigars sold as “real Havannahs” and ”prime old Cubas,” are manufactured in the neighbourhood of Goodman’s Fields; where, alas, musty old leaves, which have, as the brokers’ circulars express it, “rather an oddish smell,” are converted into genuine Bengal  cheroots.”
1839  John Hull and Lawrence Mooney brought lithography to Buffalo, NY.
1839  Cuba’s first school of lithography established in Havana by Francisco Cosnier.
1839  The city of Philadelphia opened an official warehouse for the inspection of tobacco passing through. The first year it inspected 4,366 hogsheads, almost all from Kentucky.
1839  Cuba exports 637,558 cigars to the U.S.
1839  Puerto Rico grows 4,320,339 pounds of tobacco. Island’s principle products are sugar and coffee.
1839  Austrian tobacco monopoly sells $22,795,000 worth of tobacco and cigars. A box of “extra fine 4 inch cigars in polished maple boxes of 100” sell for $1.50 wholesale. Fine 3 1/4 inch cigars in polished walnut boxes of 100 sold for $1. “Ordinary loose long and short cigars” brought 62¢ per 100.
1840  First colored paper wrappers for bundles of cigarettes printed in Cuba.  Are these the first worldwide?
1840  Austrian population is 37,000,000, about the same as France, double that of the U.S.  Prussia had 14,000,000 and the German confederation about 27,000,000. Hungary, then part of Austria, consumes an amount of tobacco equal to half the entire U.S. crop. Hungarian tobacco travels to the capital from 150 to 200 miles over roads that even in the primitive U.S. would be considered impassable. This low grade tobacco sells for less than 1¢ per pound and makes up 5/6ths of Austrian-Hungarian consumption.
1840  Housatonic Valley, CT, begins growing better quality cigar tobacco. Total CT cigar tobacco production for year was 720,000 pounds.
1840  U.S. tobacco consumption equals 2 pounds for every man, woman and child. Highest in Mid-Atlantic and South, lowest in Northeast. U.S. population of the “Atlantic strip” was 8.6 million while that of the “Valley of the Mississippi” was 8.4 million.  By 1840, consumption  of manufactured tobacco had grown to the point where Virginia and North Carolina alone were home to 350 tobacco factories.
1840  Americans smoke approximately 80,000,000 Cuban cigars a year, some of which were made in the U.S., exported to Cuba, rebranded and shipped to the U.S. as Havana cigars. Such transshipments were common with U.S. and European cigars. In 1840, $58,000 worth of U.S. leaf, stems and cigars were shipped to Cuba. Another $8 million in snuff was also sent. See details in exhibit.
1840  Around this time, U.S. demand for cigar rollers is so great they can find work anywhere. New towns routinely advertise in distant big city newspapers for them. Rollers were highly mobile craftsmen as all the tools a cigar maker needs fit in a knapsack.
1840  Marsh founds MARSH WHEELING stogie factory in Wheeling, WV. Longest running US brand.
1840  Cuba: First PUNCH cigars by Juan Valle. The marca has many owners (1874-1940), eventually Fernandez Palacio y Cia.  NCM has numerous items and knock-offs.
1840  FIGARO  with its distinctive wordy tri-lingual label is established by Julian Rivas. You can see their first box, competitors, cigarette labels, factory illus in other NCM exhibits.
1840  Cuba exports 988,400 cigars to the United States.
1840? 1843? Cincinnati cigar makers form union and issue first union stamp.
1840±  Connecticut tobacco was so profitable that it was planted in Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island and all over Connecticut. Although tobacco will grow nearly everywhere, it was soon discovered which areas produced the best leaf and production was discontinued elsewhere. Most tobacco was grown on small farms of ten acres or less. Methods of growing cigar tobacco have changed very little.
1840's  Only 309 people were employed in England tobacco manufacture at the start of the decade. British cigar industry, like that of the U.S. and Cuba, undergoes great expansion (though still much smaller than the previously named).
1840  English adulteration laws revised, now permitting anything to be added to tobacco except the leaves of trees, plants and herbs. Manufacturers and tobacconists added sugar, honey, molasses, licorice and other ingredients in such great quantities (40% to 60% by weight) that some writers described British smoking tobacco as more confectionary than tobacco.
1841  Business communications between Europe and the U.S. improved thanks to development of regular mail service. Mail could go from New York or Boston to Vienna in a bit over two weeks, considered very fast.
1842  Traffic in Western tobacco (Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky) down the Mississippi River to New Orleans necessitates building of warehouse in Louisville capable of handling 20,000 hogsheads. In 1842, 5,131 hogsheads averaging 1,300 pounds each, were handled. An estimated 15,000 total tobacco hogsheads came down the Missouri and Mississippi rivers this year.
1842  England: So much was lost in taxes thanks to retail tobacco now mostly sugar by weight that Parliament reversed the adulteration permit by passing The Pure Tobacco Act, highly opposed by the tobacco industry and its vendors. Tax officials were given wide powers to sample  tobacco and cigars at any time.  Cabbage leaf cigars were discovered.
1842  Germany: Cigar factory district of Hamburg, one of Europe’s largest cigar centers, burns down. Large numbers of experienced owners, managers and rollers move to the United States, Cuba, and Mexico during the next decade. Fire illus and map of burned area available in NCM
1843 (“early 1840’s”) Small flood of experienced lithographers immigrate from Germany to the US and Cuba. Commercial color lithography begins to catch on in both countries. Color cigar and cigarette labels reportedly printed in Cuba two or three years before US. Evidence appears to bear that claim. See examples of early Cuban experiments with color labels in the NCM exhibit.
1843  The United States exports 4,095,000 cigars to St. Petersburg, Russia.
1843  Tobacco production in Canada remains unsuccessful despite Parliamentary tax advantages.
1844  Cuba exports almost 2,000,000 cajatillas de cigarros (packs of cigarettes) which in those days typically contained 50, though other sizes were available as well. Philippine packs held 30.
1844  Illinois ships 500,000 pounds of tobacco. Had been growing and experimenting since before the Revolution. Approximately one-half of the U.S. tobacco crop is grown West of the Allegheny Mountains.
1844  Louisville, Kentucky, becomes home to two large tobacco warehouses and five stemmeries.
1844  Clarksville, Tennessee, handled 9,000 hogsheads of river tobacco traffic.
1844  An Ohio tobacconist’s ledger shows he bought 21 different shapes and blends of cigars from a handful of independent cigar rollers who work in their own homes, turning in cigars once a week. Nelson Nichols turned in 2500 simple “half Spanish” a week, while Frank Bells  generally turned in less than 1,000 a week, but all were high grade Principes, Regalias, and Cubas. Nichols’ feat is prodigious no matter how bad they were, while Bells’ was about average for a roller.
1844  In London, Cheroots from the Philippines sell for 20% more than cigars from Havana.
1845  Mr. Henry Floto manufactured Cigars in a Barn in Berlin, Somerset CO., PA. His son, Theodore, was still in business in 1870.
1844  H. UPMANN founded by Herman and August Upmann; H probably is the abbreviation for Hermanos (brothers) tho other less logical claims are put forth. Company sold in 1922 to Londoners, who failed and resold in 1936 to Menendez, Garcia y Ca (who founded Montecristo).  You can see early labels, boxes all periods, including  Upmann’s earliest labels in other NCM exhibits.
1845  LA CORONA a new brand in established factory?  The NCM has evidence the brand existed in the 1820’s. Sold in 1882 then resold. In 1910 production was 40,000/per day.  Moved most, not all, production to the US in 1933/34.  toc box, progressive for flap,
1845 PARTAGAS erects new factory building, still standing.  Partagas (possibly established as early as 1827). Brand sold in late 1890’s, eventually owned by Ramon Cifuentes Llano. photos, boxes, ads
1845  Huntoon & Gordon open factory in Providence, RI, makers of OLD COON [7329horse]
1845  CT broadleaf tobacco becomes important in cigar trade, and will be used commercially for 150+ years.
1845  Cigar tobacco introduced into Onondaga County and elsewhere in NY. Within a decade the County was producing a half-million pounds of cigar filler a year.
1845  Principal European ports handling tobacco were, in order, London (27,500,000 lbs), Amsterdam (26,000,000), Liverpool (17,000,000)  and Bremen-Hamburg (13,600,000).
1845  European prima ballerina FANNY ELSSLER performs in Cuba and has a cigar named after her. Earliest celebrity label in NCM collection.
1845  The French government tobacco monopoly, SEITA, goes into the cigarette business, selling 6,000,000 the first year. French women are addicted, an affliction that remains to this day.   1844 print Fr woman requesting cigar not cigarette
1845  Duke of Wellington decries amount of cigar smoking among military officers, requests base commanders to ban smoking in mess halls and to discourage it elsewhere.
1846  RAMON ALLONES brand registered;  Sold in 1911 to Europeans, and again in 1927 to
Ramon Cifuentes, owner of PARTAGAS.
1846  Sarony & Major lithography founded in NY City.
1846  J.M. McCord, New York cigar retailers, established.
1847  George S. Harris founds cigar label lithographic company in Philadelphia. Harris created more than 5,000 recorded cigar labels 1847-1892. Continued operation until closed by American Litho in 1900. My personal favorite printer.
1847  E.B. Estes & Sons begin making turned & locked corner wooden boxes (BN and SBN): Plants in New York, Paris, Melbourne, and London. “The largest establishment of the kind in the world.”
1847  Breneiser, establishes business as maker and wholesaler of cigars, Reading PA   portrait box, letterhead, box
1848  In Cuba, 412 factories turned out tobaccos (cigars) and cigarros (cigarettes) and picadura (smoking tobacco), though very few offered the latter since scraps were much more valuable when used for cigarros (cigarettes).
1848  War in German principalities drives more experienced cigar makers and printers to Cuba, Mexico and the US.
1848  The predecessor of the long lived A.S. Valentine & Sons, makers of FLOR DE VALENTINE, TIRADOR and PAUL JONES established in Womelsdorf, PA, by 24 year old Adam Valentine. Company lasted 100+ years in the family for three generations. Merged with Bennett, Sloan & Co.(New York) and Ibach & Rader (Newmanstown, PA) and Incorporated as A.S. Valentine & Sons in 1921. Sold out in 1954.
1848  John I., Nicks becomes Elmira, NY, first tobacconist.
1848-1850  Breneiser, founded in Reading PA  conflicting dates. Box, letterhead, other
1848  Cuba: SANCHO PANZA Cuban cigars originated by Emilio Ohmstedt.  Arbole upright
1848  Cuba: EL REY del MUNDO founded by Emilio Ohmstedt and/or Antonio Allones.  box
1849  George Schlegel, one of the US’s more important cigar label printers, founded (1849-1957). Numerous examples
1849  H. Conrad Deines, lithographer, founded in Germany.
1849  Frederich Bourquin introduces use of zinc plates to replace litho stones. Adopted by the printing industry very slowly.
1849  Boston imports 2,000 hogsheads, 8,300 bales and 27,000 boxes and kegs of tobacco. Boston exports 1,500 hogsheads, 3,700 bales and 9,800 boxes and kegs of tobacco the same year.
1849  Virginia establishes the auction system of selling loose leaf tobacco as opposed to the inspected hogshead system set up in 1730. This had little impact on cigars as cigar tobacco had been sold loose, in bales, and in the fields for a half century and almost never used either the hogshead or Southern auction systems.
1850  US annual cigar consumption is 19 per person.
1850  Cigar tobacco production begins in Wisconsin.
1850  Sanford Elmore plants first CT tobacco seed in Chemung County, NY. Within five years 30 acres grew more than 34,000 pounds. By the Civil War, a quarter million pounds were harvested. Eventually develops into one of NY’s prime planting areas.
1850  Otto Eisenlohr established factory in Philadelphia. Long time maker of CINCO and HENRIETTA. (Cinco, Henrietta) letterhead, ad showing 1st factory
1850  H. Fendrich  founded in Evansville, Indiana. Maker of DIAMOND JOE, LA FENDRICH, CHAS. DENBY and many lesser and custom brands. Many illustrations and artifacts
1850  Cuba: ROMEO Y JULIETA by Inocencio Alvarez and Manin Garcia  (many conflicting dates are given by various authors, emphasizing the difficulty of research in Cuba where archives have been pillaged and sold on the open market: see 1873 and 1875)  Earliest label, other boxes
1850  New Calixto Lopez factory built in Havana.
1850  U.S. Senator HENRY CLAY visits Cuba and has cigar named after him. Label, various boxes
1850  One half of total U.S. export is leaf tobacco for pipe smoking, snuff and chewing tobacco.
1850  The 1850 Brooklyn Census listed 408 cigar factories employing 2,950 men and women, rolling $35,000,000 worth of cigars a year.  Manhattan listed three times as many.
1850  Havana, Cuba, is the largest, most cosmopolitan, cultured, city in North and South America.
I’d like to quit and go back home.
1851  Frederich Heppenheimer and ? Hartmann start one of nation’s most important cigar label printers, which undergoes 5 name changes between 1851 and 1892; ultimately absorbed into American Litho.) Numerous examples
1851  Cuba: Date claimed for Jose Gener’s first tobacco farm in the Vuelta Abajo. He establishes HOYO DE MONTERREY in 1865, named after the small fertile valley in which he farmed. Various boxes
1851  Cuba: LA ESCEPCION  created by Jose Gener, Havana. Serpentine chest
1851  Cuba: Bock y Cia, Havana, puts bands on BOCK y Cia. cigars.  (also reported as 1854; Mara claims an astonishing 1831) Various boxes
1851  The Boston Almanac for 1851 lists only 10 cigar factories, but they did not count family operations which prior to 1920 made up the vast majority of factories.
1851  British cigar companies joined those of the U.S. and Cuba exhibiting at the Great Exposition.
1852  H. Traiser cigar factory founded in Boston. 5 different PIPPINS, incl foil, tin, e100/10, 2 50/13
1852  Pollack, stogie maker, founded in West Virginia.   have many items
1853  Louis Suisini imports German cigarette machine into Cuba (date unclear)? Suisini soon exports one of world’s most expensive and desirable cigarettes worldwide (tho many if not most are handmade). Widely counterfeited. Originator of collectible labels. Have substantial collection exhibited in NCM.
1853  Moser Cigar and Paper Box Co. founded in St. Louis.
1853  Mayrisch Bros & Co., cigar makers and importers, at the corner of Battery and Clay in San Francisco claim to be the first cigar factory on the West Coast.  letterhead
1853  Ohio cigar tobacco production 1,600,000 pounds. By the Civil War, production was ten x that.
1853  (published 1859) Lieutenant John Page wrote of universal cigar smoking in Paraguay, describing cigars being offered in every household, rich or poor. He said all men, women and children including refined young girls. Paraguayan tobacco wouldn’t hurt children they claimed.
1853  A. Hoen & Co. Litho formed in Baltimore from Weber Litho. Hoen became the largest printer of smoking and chewing tobacco crate and caddy labels in the world.  Numerous Caddy labels
1854  Ruhe Bros. Co. founded to make cigars in Allentown, PA.  card , box MR. THOMAS
1854  Nicholas Kuhnen goes into the cigar making business in Davenport Iowa, creator of PAPPOOSE,   have various styles of box over the years
1855  Dohan & Taitt, importers of Havana and packers of domestic leaf open in Philadelphia.
1855  John Morris plants first tobacco crop in Bucks County, PA, on Duck Island. Subsequent plantings brought 15¢ to 35¢ per pound. Later dropped to 4¢. Tobacco planting has always been risky.
1855  A.A. Guile, opens cigar factory at 9 Seneca St., Geneva, NY
1855  Jacob Krohn  is making cigars in Ohio.   DUTY PAID box
1850's  More than 1,000 cigar factories are in operation in Cuba, the most that will exist in any decade.
Many Cuban cigars made for the export market are banded.
1856  Captain Abishai Slade of Caswell County, NC, produces the first bright yellow tobacco, ultimately revolutionizing the smoking tobacco and cigarette industries.
1857 US Government enacts tariff aimed at imported (mostly Cuban) tobacco and cigars. Before the tariff goes into effect more Cuban cigars are imported than in any year before or since.
1857  A never-again-equalled 360,000,000 Cuban cigars were shipped to the U.S. and we were seldom Cuba’s biggest customer.  By way of comparison, a century later, Cuban imports into the U.S. hovered around the 40,000,000 mark. To put the 360 in perspective, we imported an equal number of cigars from the Netherlands and German principalities, and produced more than four times that many domestically.
1857  Hart & Murphy, founded St. Paul, Minnesota, makers of JUDGE HARLAN among others.
1857  S. Hernsheim & Bro founded LA BELLE CREOLE cigar factory in New Orleans      parade trade card, booklet, La Belle Creole
1857  D. Bing, maker of BINGATO clear Havana cigars is established.
1858  The Mueller & Son Company, box manufacturer. established in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
1858  Gumpert Bros, start cigar retail operation in Philadelphia. wpicture and envelope drawings.
1858   H. Seamon, stogie makers, founded in Wheeling WV.
1858  Robert Capadura Brown, tobacco distributor, created CAPADURA brand cigars, possibly this year, tho brand not patented until 1876.
1858  H. Jacobs & Co. founded STONEWALL JACKSON cigar factory, Canada.
1858  Custom cigar bands were put on cigars given at NYC banquet honoring men who laid Atlantic cable. Now has almost mythic status among collectors. Valuable if you could find one. I’d like the box.
1858  Soldiers returning to England from the Crimean war introduce cigarettes made with Turkish strains of small leaf tobacco. This tobacco was especially adopted in Russia, where cardboard mouthpieces and cotton filters were soon added.
1859  Pennsylvania produces 3,000,000 pounds of cigar tobacco, a figure that holds relatively steady for next 20 years.
1859  102,000,000 Cuban cigars imported into the U.S. (about 40% of Cuban production).
1859  Cuba exported almost 9,000,000 packages of cigarettes, containing an average 50 smokes each. Very few went to the U.S., those almost exclusively to Cuban immigrants in Key West and New Orleans.
1859  US Government offers Spain $30,000,000 for Cuba. Turned down.